Eating disorders are a group of conditions marked by an unhealthy relationship with food. There are three main types of eating disorders:
Anorexia nervosa. This is characterized by weight loss often due to excessive dieting and exercise, sometimes to the point of starvation. People with anorexia feel they can never be thin enough and continue to see themselves as “fat” despite extreme weight loss.
Bulimia nervosa. The condition is marked by cycles of extreme overeating, known as bingeing, followed by purging or other behaviors to compensate for the overeating. It is also associated with feelings of loss of control about eating.
Binge eating disorder . This is characterized by regular episodes of extreme overeating and feelings of loss of control about eating.
Eating disorders tend to develop during the teenage and young adult years, and they are much more common in girls and women. No one knows the precise cause of eating disorders, but they seem to coexist with psychological and medical issues such as low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, trouble coping with emotions, and substance abuse.
For some people, a preoccupation with food becomes a way to gain control over one aspect of their lives. Although it may start out as simply eating a bit more or less than usual, the behavior can spiral out of control and take over the person’s life. Eating disorders are a serious medical problem that can have long-term health consequences if left untreated.
It’s common for people with eating disorders to hide their unhealthy behaviors, so it can be difficult to recognize the signs of an eating disorder, especially early on.
Here’s a more detailed look at the symptoms of anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder.
Signs of Anorexia Nervosa
People with anorexia nervosa have an extreme fear of gaining weight. They often diet and exercise relentlessly, sometimes to the point of starvation. About one-third to one-half of anorexics also binge and purge by vomiting or misusing laxatives. People with anorexia have a distorted body image, thinking they are overweight when in fact they are underweight. They may count calories obsessively and only allow themselves tiny portions of certain specific foods. When confronted, someone with anorexia will often deny that there’s a problem.
The following symptoms and behaviors are common in people with anorexia:
- Dramatic weight loss
- Wearing loose, bulky clothes to hide weight loss
- Preoccupation with food, dieting, counting calories, etc.
- Refusal to eat certain foods, such as carbs or fats
- Avoiding mealtimes or eating in front of others
- Preparing elaborate meals for others but refusing to eat them
- Exercising excessively
- Making comments about being “fat”
- Stopping menstruating
- Complaining about constipation or stomach pain
- Denying that extreme thinness is a problem